Generating trading systems through automatic means is nothing new. There are several algorithmic implementations available commercially, usually involving different methodologies such as genetic algorithms, random pattern searches, etc. However every automatic search for a trading strategy suffers from a significant problem derived from the notion of data mining bias, which is related with confusing a strategy that exploits a real historical inefficiency with a strategy that is simply a consequence of random chance. The more intensive the search, the worse your datamining bias will become, meaning that you will have a greater chance of finding something “better” simply because you looked for it harder. This is a simple consequence of expanding your search space because the law of large numbers dictates that even highly unlikely scenarios will be drawn as the sample size taken from a distribution grows. On today’s post I am going to describe a way to systematically evaluate data mining bias (DMB) to determine whether a given performer from a given system search is likely to be the result of random chance or a true historical inefficiency. We are going to look at possible sources of additional bias and we are going to describe a methodology that does not depend on complexity, selection or past experience.
Let us suppose you want to search a given financial instrument for profitable historical trading systems. The first thing you need to do is to define how you will search for systems (what systems interest you) and this system filter choice must avoid selection bias. For example if you’re developing systems for symbol A and you know that for A systems with high risk to reward ratios have historically performed better, including such a filter using this statistic introduces a selection bias (influence of past experience). Any performance filter must be based on symbolindependent criteria which can equally be apply to any financial instrument. Since we know what the ideal trading system looks like (a noncompounding system is ideally a straight line) we can make the nonbiased assumption that we want to search for something as close to ideal as possible (highly linear systems). In addition we can also search for only systems that have traded with a minimum frequency (trades/unit of time), because we cannot evaluate linearity accurately on systems that have lower frequency.
Now that we know what type of systems we want to generate we must now choose a performance metric to evaluate our systems. This performance metric must be based on some characteristic we want to maximize for our strategies, for example we can use the profit, the sharpe ratio, the profit to maximum drawdown ratio, etc. You can also perform the analysis for various performance metrics if you wish. The idea of the performance metric is to allow us to score the systems created so that we can establish a method to rank our strategies.


From the above let us suppose we want to find systems that are highly linear (R2>0.95), which have a trading frequency above 10 trades per year, which have been profitable during their last trading year and we will use the profit to drawdown ratio as a performance metric (all criteria that can be applied to systems on any trading symbol). We now need to define a search space where we will be looking for these strategies, however the methodology needs to be established such that the definition of this space does not affect your conclusions. As with the filtering criteria, your search space needs to be generic, it cannot be specific to the symbol you’re developing for. This means that the search space usually needs to be somewhat broad and include no previous knowledge about the symbol you’re trying to evaluate. For this example I will be using a space composed of 2 price action rules with a maximum shift of 30 and a stoploss ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 of the daily ATR for the symbol being tested. For the symbol selection I chose a Forex pair randomly from a set of 25 historical files, to ensure that my example has no bias from my past experience with a few FX pairs.
But how do we evaluate whether our created trading systems have any merit? This is where things get a bit more complicated. You cannot tell if your systems have or don’t have any merit simply by looking at their performance because you don’t know the probability that such a performance was generated randomly. How high or low your performance metrics can get will depend on the complexity of your system search space, so you cannot evaluate your strategy just by looking at how “good or bad” it looks. In order to evaluate whether a trading strategy can be due to random chance you need to define a benchmark to compare it with, which must be from a system generation procedure where profitability from random chance is the only possibility.
In order to do this we take the price series we’re using and we generate N new random series generated from it. In order to do this we use a bootstrapping technique with replacement in order to preserve the distribution characteristics of the instrument. After doing this we then search for systems (using our above established criteria) on all these random series and we generate a distribution of all the systems that we found according to your chosen performance metric. Note that the value of N needs to be large enough so that the empirical cumulative distribution function of the statistic’s population converges, if it does not converge then your sample is not large enough to make any valid assumptions. In my experience an N between 50100 is usually enough as to get an empirical cumulative distribution function that varies less than 0.00001% between iterations. You must also exhaust your whole search space on all the random series (search for all possible systems), so that you have no bias relative to how much of the available space you are evaluating. Note that this post’s results were repeated with N > 500 and results remained exactly the same after the ECDF converged (as mentioned above).


After we have obtained the empirical cumulative distribution function for our random strategies we now know how many random systems are expected to be generated for a given number of tests. We can get this value from any class within our distribution by simply looking at the total number of systems (B) and the frequency of that class. If we have 500 systems in the 0.20.3 class within a 5,000 system distribution then we can say that the probability to have drawn a randomly profitable system with a performance value of 0.20.3 is 0.1 or 10%. With this information we are now ready to generate systems using our real data.
After generating a distribution of systems obtained from the real data we can now calculate exactly what the probability of a system belonging to random chance actually is. Since we know the probability that a system with a given performance metric will exist out of random chance, the probability that our systems belong to random chance can be summarized as C/X, where C is the probability of the strategy to be generated from random chance according to our previous tests and X is the probability of the strategy being generated within our real data. Think about it this way, our real data contains both randomly profitable and nonrandomly profitable systems (at best) and therefore the probability that a system is randomly profitable is simply the extent to which the random data generation probability covers the actual real generation probability within our system. If you know that in random data you have a 20% probability to generate systems with a 0.2 performance score and you get a 20% of these systems on your real data, then you cannot say if your systems are or aren’t due to random chance, because you got exactly the amount you expected from the random distribution. If you had obtained 40% then you could say that 50% of your systems are expected to be profitable due to random chance (20/40), so the probability of your systems to come out of random chance is 50%. If a system has a zero frequency in random chance, then the probability to generate it is at least lower than 1/TS where TS is the total number of system generation runs attempted across all searches on random series. This is another reason why we need to look into many different random series, because otherwise TS would be very small and we would have large random chance probabilities for systems with low frequencies on our real data.
You can then generate a plot with the probability of your systems to come out of random chance (above), which gives you the confidence with which you can assume that the system comes from random chance. You can see in the above example that for systems with a performance metric above 0.6, the probability that they come from random chance is minimal (less than 1 in 60 million for this particular test). This shows unequivocally that price action based generated strategies – at least in this example – are most likely NOT the result of random chance, at least for a set of more than 200 top performers. Note how the probability that the system belongs to random chance increases as we move to lower values, because it is simply not possible to distinguish in this case between both worlds as we generate a lower or equal mount of systems as expected from random chance probabilities. The empirical cumulative distribution functions also reveal the fundamental difference between systems on random and real data (we will talk about KolmogorovSmirnov and other tests on future posts). The methodology does not rely on past experience, uses data from all systems generated and accounts for the probability of random system generation, generating a clear confidence interval for the expectation of a strategy being the result of random chance.
The above methodology is also robust to changes in complexity, because the methodology includes an incorporation of all the trading systems generated, without any selection bias. If you increase the trading complexity you might increase your system profitability and your DMB which will in turn lead to a different empirical cumulative distribution function on your random and real data that will lead to similar conclusions in the end. This method therefore cannot be fooled by a selection bias related with system complexity because the whole method adapts to the level of system generation complexity being chosen. I have tested several wider and smaller complexity regions, always reaching similar conclusions. You can also test the above method using random data as if it was “real data” (second image above) and you will get in the end a result that accurately predicts that the probability that your systems are random is always incredibly high.
There are also some other useful metrics that you can use to determine how much your real data distribution differs from the distribution of the random chance systems, something that we will be discussing on future posts. Note that the above conclusion –  that we can generate systems that aren’t expected to come from random chance – cannot be taken generally and the test must be repeated for any symbol that you want to test. Symbols with a heavy long term bias might show much higher probabilities of good profitability on random chance. If you would like to learn more about algorithmic system creation and how you too can generate your own trading strategies please consider joining Asirikuy.com, a website filled with educational videos, trading systems, development and a sound, honest and transparent approach towards automated trading in general . I hope you enjoyed this article ! :o)